We develop Proprietary Antiviral Drugs
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19, the current ongoing pandemic that has claimed the lives of over 2.8 million people worldwide since it first appeared in December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 is a Betacoronaviruses, one of four genera of Coronaviruses belonging to the family, Coronaviridae. The remaining three genera are Alpha, Gamma and Delta Coronavirus. Gamma and Delta Coronaviruses do not infect humans while the Alphacoronaviruses are responsible for approximately 30% of the annual common cold cases.
The Betacoronaviruses are comprised of three highly virulent starins including: (i) SARS-CoV which appeared in 2002 having an associated mortality rate of 10 to 15 percent, (ii) MERS-CoV which came on the seen in 2015 wielding a case-fatality rate of 34 to 37 percent, and (iii) SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the current pandemic (COVID-19) with a mortality rate of 3 to 5 percent.
In addition to the main protease (Mpro), which is shared among coronaviruses, Betacoronaviruses have a second virus-encoded protease called papain-like protease (PLpro). These two proteases are responsible for cleaving the initial expression products of the viral genome (polyproteins 1a and 1ab) at 15 different sites to produce 16 different mature virus proteins essential for viral replication. While Mpro cleaves the viral polyproteins 1a and 1ab at 12 different locations, PLpro cleaves polyprotein 1a at only 3 sites. PLpro, however, is also involved in cleaving certain host proteins (various ubiquitinated proteins and ISG15), resulting in suppression of the host’s innate immune response. It is believed that PLpro is responsible for the enhanced pathogenicity of Betacoronaviruses. Our COVID-19 Treatment is an inhibitor of PLpro.