According to the American Cancer Society:
- Approximately 1.5 million new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year in the U.S.
- Over 11 million Americans are living with cancer.
- Virtually all cancers are either aggressive at the onset or become aggressive over time.
- The overall cost of disease treatment is over $126 billion annually.
- There are two genes which are associated with aggressive forms of cancer: Her2 and Top2
- Herceptin (R)* is an effective treatment for Her2 positive patients.
- There are currently no effective therapies that target Top 2.
- *Herceptin (R)* sales are $1.8 Billion per year.
The Her2 and Top2 Genes
- Her2 gene encodes Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2
- Top 2 gene encodes Topoisomerase II, an enzyme that unwinds DNA and is required for cell proliferation.
- Her2 and Top2 are located on Chromosome 17 near the BRCA1 gene at 17q21-q22.
- Top2 is often co-amplified in aggressive cancers.
- As many as 10 copies of the Top2 gene have been found in Multi-Drug Resistant Breast Cancer cells.
Inhibition of the Top2 Enzyme
- Inhibition of Topoisomerase II activity (Top2) is essential in the fight against aggressive types of cancer, including multi-resistant breast cancer.